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Table 3 Summary of tentacle-contained cnidocyst penetration of various materials

From: Puncture mechanics of cnidarian cnidocysts: a natural actuator

Material Elastic Modulus (MPa) Penetration
Gelatin 0.02 +
Polyacrylamide 0.06 +
Teflon 0.10 +
Latex 0.80 +
PDMS 1.00 +
Nitrile 2.60 -
Polyvinylchloride 250 -
Polycarbonate 2,000 -
Aluminum 70,000 -
Glass 90,000 -
  1. List of test materials and their respective elastic moduli. The ability of tentacle-contained cnidocysts from Physalia to puncture these materials is also listed. Note that the elastic modulus of human skin is approximately 0.13 MPa [35]. A positive sign denotes successful penetration of at least some of the threads in all three trials. A negative sign indicates a lack of successful penetration in all trials. In positive cases, thread penetration occurred in all three trials.