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Table 1 Classification of electrospun nanofiber-mediated gene delivery approaches

From: Electrospun nanofibers as versatile interfaces for efficient gene delivery

Vector loading methods Vectors Genes Target cells Results Ref
Vector encapsulation Virus (Ad) GFP, RFP HEK293T • Sustained and controlled viral release for 30 days. [30]
• Localized gene expression from electrospun scaffolds.
Plasmid DNA β-Gal, GFP MC3T3-E1 • Gene expression by the released DNA 48 h after seeding [47]
• Burst release of majority of encapsulated plasmid DNA within 30 minutes.
Cdk2i, EGFPi MCF-7 cell • Sustained release over 21 days [115]
• ~40% decrease in proliferation of breast cancer cells compared with control scaffold
EGFP Rat fibroblasts • Extended release of pDNA and transgene expression over 60 days. [55]
Virus (AAV) GFP NIH3T3 • Sustained viral release for 7 days. [48]
• Maintained transgene expression (>90%) on the scaffolds for 7 days.
Plasmid DNA/chitosan nanoparticle BMP-2 hMSC • Sustained release for 45 ~ 55 days [56]
• DNA/chitosan nanoparticles encapsulated electrospun scaffolds as a favorable DNA delivery device with regard to cell transfection efficiency and cell viability
Plasmid DNA/LEL polyplex β-Gal, GFP MC3T3 • Transgene expression on DNA-incorporating electrospun scaffolds 24 h after seeding. [57, 80]
• Sustained release for 7 days.
siRNA/CPP polyplex Col1A1 silencing Human dermal fibroblasts, in vivo • Prolonged in vitro gene silencing duration by 2 ~ 3-fold. [58]
In vivo gene silencing for 4 weeks.
Plasmid DNA/PEI EGFP NIH3T3 • Controlled release time from 6 days to 25 days by internal structures and porogens. [64]
• 10-fold increased gene expression on the scaffolds compared to simple pDNA/PELA blends.
VEGF/eGFP & bFGF/eGFP HUVEC • Sustained release for 4 weeks [65]
• Significantly higher vessel densities
bFGF/GFP BEF, in vivo • Sustained release for 26 days [84]
• 4 ~ 6-fold increased bFGF expression compared with post-electrospinning delivery after 7 day incubation
• Significantly higher wound recovery rate compared with post-electrospinning delivery
siRNA/chitosan polyplex EGFP silencing EGFP expressing human lung carcinoma cell lines • Sustained and controlled delivery for 30 days. [67]
• Prolonged in vitro gene silencing duration by 3 ~ 4-fold compared to the bolus delivery.
siRNA GAPDH silencing HEK293, NIH3T3 • Sustained release of siRNA for 28 days. [68]
• Gene silencing on scaffolds in presence of additional transfection agents.
• Enhanced gene silencing capability with additional transfection agents in the media.
siRNA/transfect-ion reagent complex GAPDH silencing NIH3T3 • Sustained release of siRNA and gene silencing on the scaffolds for at least 28 days. [69]
• Improved gene silencing capability with transfection agents supplemented in the media.
Solid-in-oil dispersion of plasmid DNA Luciferase N/A • Release profile controlled by degrading rates of fibers. [81]
• 10-fold increases in functional integrity of released pDNA compared to mixed mesh.
Plasmid DNA/calcium phosphate nanoparticle VEGF/eGFP & bFGF/eGFP HUVEC, hAoSMC • Sustained release for 4 weeks [83]
• Significantly higher densities of blood vessels and mature vessels
Vector immobilization Virus (AAV) GFP, Luciferase HEK293T • Three-dimensional and uniaxially aligned transgene expression [33]
• 4-fold enhanced transgene expression levels compared to 2D electrospun scaffolds.
Plasmid DNA EGFP Glioblastoma cells • Transgene expression by the released DNA from the fibers (maximum transfection efficiency > 90%). [45]
Luciferase COS-7 • Retained gene expression on the fibers for 5 days after seeding. [46]
• 2-fold increased gene delivery efficiency of electrospun fibers over that of flat films.
GFP, Dsred HEK293, MSC, in vivo • 10-fold increase in gene expression intensity compared to PCL fibers in vivo. [59]
EGFP-N1 NIH3T3, in vivo • MMP-2 responsive release of DNA [66]
• Significantly enhanced gene expression in wound tissue compared to naked DNA delivery
Luciferase, KGF NIH3T3, in vivo • Sustained expression for 7 days [76]
• 65% smaller epithelial gap in KGF scaffold treated wounds than in untreated wounds
hEGF HDF, in vivo • MMP-2 responsive release of DNA [85]
• Approximately 2-fold increased wound closure compared with non-treated wounds
EGFP MC3T3-E1 • Controlled gradients of pDNA concentration and gene expression level by spatially regulating rates of chemical reactions. [98]
Virus (AAV) GFP HEK293T • Patterned and localized gene vectors and gene expression on the scaffolds. [60]
• 2-fold increase in transfection efficiency compared with unmodified virus delivery.
Plasmid DNA/liposome RUNX2/eGFP hBMSC • Long-term gene expression for 21 days [77]
• Improved osteogenic differentiation of stem cells
siRNA/PEI polyplexes & siRNA/ transfection reagent complex TSP-2 silencing hAoSMC • Down-regulated TSP-2 mRNA expression [78]
Plasmid DNA/chitosan nanoparticle BMP-2 in vivo • Different bone healing performance depending on the loading methods [82]
• Improved bone healing for DNA/chitosan nanoparticles adsorbed electrospun scaffolds at 4 weeks of treatment
siRNA MMP-2 silencing HDF, in vivo • MMP-2 responsive release of DNA [86]
• Faster wound recovery rate compared with siRNA solution delivery
Plasmid DNA/ssPEI Luciferase, RFP, VEGF H9C2 myoblastic cell • Enhanced transfection efficiency compared to bolus delivery [87]
• Successful expression of the VEGF gene in the cells
  siRNA/ transfection reagent complex REST silencing NPC • Enhanced neural marker expression and neuronal differentiation [88]