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Table 1 Salt-affected soils and their suitability for cultivating halophiles for biomass provided adequate irrigation is available [65]

From: Facing the challenge of sustainable bioenergy production: Could halophytes be part of the solution?

Soil Geographical distribution Potential to cultivate halophytes Comments
Arenosol Mainly on aeolian, but also on marine, littoral, and lacustrine sands, e.g. in the Kalahari, Sahel, various parts of the Sahara, central and western Australia, the Near East and western China, sandy coastal plains and coastal dune areas ++ High percolation losses during surface irrigation; soil conservation measures necessary
Solonchak Arid and semi-arid parts of northern Africa, the Near East, former Soviet Union and Central Asia, widespread in Australia and the Americas + Irrigation should be accompanied by drainage systems
Solonetz Semi-arid temperate continental climate, e.g. in the Ukraine, the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, China, the United States of America, Canada, South Africa, Argentina, and Australia +/− Deep ploughing to improve soil permeability; irrigation with Ca-rich water
Kastanozem Eurasian short-grass steppe belt, the Great Plains of USA, Canada, and Mexico; pampas and Chaco regions of northern Argentina, Paraguay, and south-eastern Bolivia +++ Care has to be taken about secondary salinization and wind and water erosion
Calcisol Often together with Solonchaks in arid and semi-arid tropics and subtropics + Amelioration might be necessary to break lime banks
Gypsisol Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, the Libyan and Namibian deserts, southern and central Australia, and south-western USA ++ Rapid dissolution of soil gypsum may lead to irregular subsidence of the land surface and corrosion of concrete structures
  1. (+++) highly suitable, (++) well suitable, (+) suitable, (+/−) rather unsuitable