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Table 3 A summary of therapeutic targets that could benefit from lymphatic tissue engineering

From: Lymphatic Tissue Engineering and Regeneration

Application Approach and targets Clinical outcome Ref.
Cardiac Repair Induce lymphangiogenesis to create a pathway for inflammatory cell efflux and promote wound healing -Rescue lymphatic transport ability
-Mobilize macrophages
-Reduce inflammation and edema
[54, 48, 253255]
Deliver VEGF-C to promote lymphangiogenesis -Smaller ventricular end-systolic volume and improved ejection fraction
-Accelerated cardiac lymphangiogenesis and limited collecting vessel remodeling
-Decreased cardiac inflammation, fibrosis, and dysfunction
[29, 48]
Inject HA-based hydrogels into peri-infarct region -Ejection fraction improved to almost pre-MI baseline levels
-Decreased scarring and decreased collagen deposition
Neurological Conditions Deliver VEGF-C to rescue impaired meningeal LVs and improve waste drainage from CNS -Improved drainage of macromolecules
-Improved brain perfusion
-Improved learning and memory
Rescue meningeal LVs to decrease amyloid-β deposition in the meninges -Potential to slow onset of Alzheimer's and other age-related cognitive declines [268]
Improved Skin Grafts Incorporate LVs into skin grafts to treat full-thickness skin defects -Improved perfusion of oxygen and nutrients in dermal component
-Rapid integration, proliferation, and differentiation of skin graft
Improved Wound Healing Implant hydrogel scaffolds embedded with LECs -Accelerated healing rate
-Enhanced lymphatic ingrowth
-Potential to treat diabetic wounds
[260, 5]
Diabetes Inhibit lymphatic-specific epsin expression -Prevent degradation of VEGFR3 and negate diabetes-triggered downregulation of lymphangiogenesis [266]