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Table 2 Different cell delivery methods for the regeneration of target organs

From: Tissue engineering strategies for the induction of angiogenesis using biomaterials

Approach Advantage Limitation Ref
Scaffolds • Carrying cells
• Delivery pro-angiogenic factors
• Providing 3D condition
• Having stability
• Timely degradation
• Toxicity
• Immune-modulatory effects
Stem cell priming or pretreatment • Improve differentiation rate
• Improve migration and homing rate to target tissue
• Improve cell function
• Cellular senescence
• Critical consideration for cell treatment
Exosomes • Bio-shuttle for pro- and anti-angiogenic factors
• Lack of immune-privileged capacity
• Promotes tumorgenesis
• Needs to isolate and concentrated
Magnetic enhancement techniques • Facilitate the cell retention rate
• Control cells mobilization into target sites
• Track transplanted cells in in vivo
• Provide micro-emboli for cells with small size features [143,144,145]
Ultrasound techniques • Enhance delivery of cells to target sites • Yields cytotoxicity by promoting necrosis or apoptosis
• Tissue damage such as arrhythmias, endothelium malfunction such as capillary leakage
Enhanced homing technique • Enhance proliferating, migrating, and alignment of EPCs to target sites ND* [146, 149]
Mannitol-enhanced delivery • Used for cell delivery through the blood-brain barrier • Being selective for distinct cells and factors [48, 150,151,152]
  1. *Not fully determined