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Table 4 Advantage and limitation of different biomaterials in tissue-engineered approaches

From: Tissue engineering strategies for the induction of angiogenesis using biomaterials

Scaffold Advantage Limitation Ref
Collagen • Highly distensible and pressure sensitive
• Having well-organized pattern
• Resistant to high strain and decrease the permeability of the vascular structure
• Thrombogenic potential and activation of the coagulation cascade
• Enhanced risk of immunogenicity
• The high cost of pure collagen
Elastin • Suitable for high porous structures with a small diameter
• Enhanced the proliferative capacity of ECs
• Enhanced cell dynamics and rearrangement of collagen after tension
• Solubilizing difficulty
• Inefficient mixing with other polymeric materials
Matrigel • Comparability to extracellular matrix • Minimally invasive
• Degradation time
Fibrin Suitable for delivery of thrombin, fibrinogen and coagulation factors • Structural weakness
• Suitable for the fabrication of synthetic transplants (PEG, PLGA)
Alginate Used commonly polymer for encapsulation Control of size [74]
Chitosan Easily form polyelectrolyte complexes with other polyanions Poor mechanical property [75, 155, 156]
Agarose Available as agarose, is gelatinous and has sol-gel transition based on temperatures A wide range of commercially available agarose [157]
HA low HAs enhances the proliferation and migration of ECs The high molecular HAs inhibits angiogenesis [158]