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Fig. 1 | Journal of Biological Engineering

Fig. 1

From: Systems metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for the bioproduction of biliverdin via protoporphyrin independent pathway

Fig. 1

Schematic representation and thermodynamic data of biosynthetic pathway for production of biliverdin. a Metabolic pathway and main push and pull strategies for biliverdin biosynthesis in C. glutamicum. The red arrows represent the push steps and the blue arrows represent the pull steps. b Comparing the changes in Gibbs free energy of reaction as a function of pathway progress from glutamate to biliverdin. Closed circle, protoporphyrin dependent pathway; Open circle, coproporphyrin dependent pathway. Abbreviations: UPG, uroporphyrinogen III; UP, uroporphyrin III; CPG, coproporphyrinogen III; CP, coproporphyrin III, Fe-CP, Coproheme III; PPG, protoporphyrinogen IX; PP, protoporphyrin IX; GltX, glutamyl-tRNA synthetase; HemA, glutamyl-tRNA reductase; HemL, glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase; HemB, porphobilinogen synthase; HemC, hydroxymethylbilane synthase; HemD, uroporphyrinogen III synthase; HemE, uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase; HemY, prtoporphyrinogen/coproporphyrinogen III oxidase; HemH, protoporphyrin/coproporphyrin ferrochelatase; HemQ, Fe-coproporphyrin III decarboxylase; HemN, coproporphyrinogen III oxidase; HmuO, heme oxygenase

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