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Table 1 Calculated ΔG0′ values for the reaction to produce biliverdin starting from l-glutamate

From: Systems metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for the bioproduction of biliverdin via protoporphyrin independent pathway

Enzymes Reactions (substrates → products)a ΔG0’ (kJ/mol)
GltX l-glutamate + GlutRNA + ATP → l-glutamyl-GlutRNA + AMP + PPi − 369.36
HemA l-glutamyl-GlutRNA + NADPH + H+ → l-glutamate-1-semialdehyde + GlutRNA + NADP+ 372.94
HemL l-glutamate-1-semialdehyde → 5-aminolevulinate −6.11
HemB 2 5-aminolevulinate → porphobilinogen + 2 H2O − 141.13
HemC 4 porphobilinogen + H2O → hydroxymethylbilane + 4 NH3 − 207.52
HemD hydroxymethylbilane → uroporphyrinogen III + H2O −55.13
HemE uroporphyrinogen III → coproporphyrinogen III + 4 CO2 −14.12
HemN coproporphyrinogen III + 2 AdoMet → protoporphyrinogen IX + 2 5′-dAdo + 2 l-methionine + 2 CO2 − 115.27
HemY protoporphyrinogen IX + 3 O2 → protoporphyrin IX + 3 H2O2 − 622.83
HemH protoporphyrin + Fe2+ → heme + 2 H+ 244.65
HemY coproporphyrinogen III + 3 O2 → coproporphyrin III + 3 H2O2 −622.83
HemH coproporphyrin III + Fe2+ → Fe-coproporphyrin III + 2 H+ 244.65
HemQ Fe-coproporphyrin III + 2 H2O2 → heme + 2 CO2 + 4 H2O − 562.79
HmuO heme + 6 Fdred + 3 O2 + 6 H+ → biliverdin + Fe2+ + CO + 6 Fdox + 3 H2O − 1308.16
  1. aAbbreviations: 5′-dAdo, 5′-deoxyadenosine; AdoMet, S-adenosyl-l-methionine; Fdox, oxidized ferredoxin; Fdred, reduced ferredoxin