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Table 1 List of ncAAs discussed in the review and their methods of incorporation

From: Non-canonical amino acid labeling in proteomics and biotechnology

ncAA Codon replacement Natural amino acid analog Genetic modification Labeling method
Hag AUG Met Not neededa Residue-specific [50,51,52]
Hpg AUG Met Not neededa Residue-specific [22, 50, 51, 73]
Aha AUG Met Not neededa Residue-specific [3, 22, 75, 84,85,86,87]
Anl AUG Met Transgenic lines that express a MetRS mutant capable of charging Anlb Residue-specific [53, 54, 78, 88,89,90, 92,93,94,95]
Azf UUC, UUU
UAG
Phe Transgenic lines that express a PheRS mutant capable of charging Azfb
Transgenic lines that express an orthogonal aaRS/amber suppressor tRNA pair evolved for Azf specificity
Residue-specific [55]
Site-specific [118]
Acf UUC, UUU
UAG
Phe Transgenic lines that express a PheRS mutant capable of charging Acfb
Transgenic lines that express an orthogonal aaRS/amber suppressor tRNA pair evolved for Acf specificity
Residue-specific [136]
Site-specific [111]
Pxf UAG Tyr Transgenic lines that express an orthogonal aaRS/amber suppressor tRNA pair evolved for Pxf specificity Site-specific [124]
  1. aThe efficiency of the ncAA incorporation is greatly enhanced by using Met auxotrophic strains
  2. bFor cell selective labeling, the mutant aaRS is expressed under the control of cell-specific promoters