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Table 1 Standard cephalometric landmarks used for the geometric morphometric analysis of the human craniofacial anatomy [11]

From: A 3D cephalometric protocol for the accurate quantification of the craniofacial symmetry and facial growth

Landmark Description
 Alare (Al) The most lateral points on the nasal aperture in a transverse plane.
 Anterior nasal spine (ANS) The most anterior point at the sagittal plane on the bony hard palate.
 Basion (Ba) The most inferior posterior point of the occipital bone at the anterior margin of the occipital foramen.
 Crista galli (Cg) Most superior point on the crista galli.
 Ectoconchion (Ec) The intersection of the most anterior surface of the lateral border of the orbit and a line bisecting the orbit along its long axis.
 Ectomolare (Ecm) The most lateral point on the outer surface of the alveolar borders of the maxilla, often opposite the middle of the second molar tooth.
 Gnathion (Gn) The midpoint between the most anterior and inferior points of the hard tissue chin in the midsagittal plane.
 Gonion (Go) The most outward inferior point on the angle of the mandible.
 Inferior nasal aperture (IN) Most inferior point on the inner cortex of the anterior nasal aperture.
 Menton (Me) The most inferior midline point on the mandible.
 Nasion (N) The point of intersection between the frontonasal suture and the midsagittal plane.
 Orbitale (Or) The lowermost point in the lower margin of the bony orbit.
 Porion (Po) The most superior point of the external auditory meatus.
 Pogonion (Pog) The most prominent point in the chin.
 Sella (S) The geometrical centre of the sella turcica.
 Subspinale (A) The most concave point of anterior maxilla.
 Supraorbital notch (So) Most superior point on the inner cortical plate of the orbital rim.
Anatomical plane Description
 Frankfurt horizontal A line connecting the Po and Or points.
 Nasion-Pogonion A line connecting the N and Pog points
 Sella-Nasion A line connecting the Sella and the Nasion points.