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Table 2 Alignment errors obtained in the alignment of the target models (NHP recovery) and warped models (facial growth and asymmetry) with the gold standard models (Mean Symmetrical Distance (MSD), Hausdorff distance (Hd), and landmark errors in millimetres)

From: A 3D cephalometric protocol for the accurate quantification of the craniofacial symmetry and facial growth

   N. trials Aligned MSD (sd) Hd (sd) Landmarks (sd)
NHP recovery Full 15 15 0.167 (9.10e-6) 0.525 (4.65e-5) N = 0.211 (2.77e-17)
Pog = 0.305 (5.55e-17)
Partial 15 15 0.272 (2.23e-5) 0.521 (4.26e-5) N = 0.320 (2.635e-7)
Pog = 0.232 (1.764e-7)
Facial growth 2 2 0.182 (0.062)# 0.337# N = 0.091#
Pog = 0.162#
0.696 (0.331)* 1.813* N = 1.673*
Pog = 1.790*
Asymmetry 3 3 0.093 (0.035) 0.173 N = 0.106**
Pog = 0.173**
0.201 (0.074) 0.372 N = 0.248***
Pog = 0.370***
0.242 (0.136) 0.572 N = 0.022##
Pog = 0.079##
  1. #Distance between the target model and the theoretical gold standard for 2-year growth; *Distance between the target model and the theoretical gold standard for 4-years growth; **Distance in facial asymmetry Fig. 3a; ***Distance in facial asymmetry Fig. 3b; ##Distance in facial asymmetry Fig. 3c; sd = standard deviation