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Table 1 Polymorphs of cellulose

From: Functional cellulose-based hydrogels as extracellular matrices for tissue engineering

Source Cellulose polymorphs Features References
Valonia ventricosa1 (bubble algae)
Acetobacter xylinum
(bacteria)
Microdictyon (green algae)
Halocynthia (tunicates)
Cellulose I Native cellulose, found in nature, interconvertible, stable. Crystalline forms are termed as Iα and Iβ. Iα considered as primitive type, while higher plants possess Iβ. Marchessault and Sarko, 1967
[45]
[46]
[47]
[48]
Halicystis (green algae)2
Mutant strain of A. xylinum
Cellulose II Obtained from cellulose I, interconvertible, also found in nature. [49]
[50]
[51]
Kuga et al., 1993 [52]
Chemical conversion of Valonia cellulose I and cellulose II Cellulose III Interconvertible and not found in nature. Two crystalline forms isolated as IIII and IIIII respectively. [49]
[50]
Chemical conversion and heating of cellulose IIII and IIIII Cellulose IV Interconvertible and not found in nature. Two crystalline forms isolated as IVI and IVII respectively. [53]
[54]
  1. 1highly crystalline cellulose obtained from Valonia
  2. 2naturally occurring cellulose II