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Table 1 Brief description of candidate biomarkers used for CRC diagnosis

From: Signature mRNA markers in extracellular vesicles for the accurate diagnosis of colorectal cancer

No.BiomarkerFunction
1MYC• Transcription factor involved in genesis and progression of cancers
2FZD10• Transmembrane protein acting as a receptor for the Wingless type MMTV integration site
• Upregulated in primary colon cancers
3EGFR• Tyrosine kinase receptor that regulates cell growth, differentiation, and angiogenesis
4VEGF• Angiogenic factor in CRC
• Increased level correlated with advanced lymph node status and distant metastasis
5CDX2• Caudal-related homeobox gene that controls cell functions such as adhesion, proliferation, and apoptosis
6CD44• Transmembrane glycoprotein that regulates cell adhesion, proliferation, growth, migration, angiogenesis, and differentiation
7CD133• Transmembrane glycoprotein identified in colon tumors
• High expression associated with distant metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy
8CEA• Expressed in most cancers
• Involved in tumorigenesis by enhancing tumor cell survival and inducing tumor angiogenesis
9CK19• Expressed at various levels in epithelial cells
• Metastatic once circulated in blood
10ALDH1• Important role in early differentiation of cancer stem cells and their proliferation and metastasis
11EpCAM• Highly expressed on proliferative, intestinal epithelial cells
• Loss is generally associated with a tumor-promoting role
12CD24• GPI-anchored membrane protein involved in development and progression of malignant tumors, including CRC
  1. MYC myelocytomatosis; FZD frizzled; EGFR epidermal growth factor receptor; VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor; CDX caudal type homeobox; CD cluster of differentiation; CEA carcinoembryonic antigen; CK cytokeratin; ALDH aldehyde dehydrogenase; EpCAM epithelial cell adhesion molecule