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Table 1 Advanced process monitoring tools for ACT

From: Lymphocyte expansion in bioreactors: upgrading adoptive cell therapy

Tool Application Type Ref.
Raman spectroscopy Metabolite monitoring (glucose, lactate, amino acids). On-line [46]
Total Cell Concentration. On-line [46]
Cell identity determination (phenotype & activation). At-line [47, 48]
Sequential injection capillary electrophoresis Metabolite monitoring (glucose, lactate, amino acids). At-line [49]
Cell concentration. At-line [49]
FT-IR spectroscopy Glucose monitoring. On-line [50]
Electrical impedance Cell-mediated cytotoxicity and cell adhesion. At-line [51,52,53]
Biosensors for acidification measurement Metabolite monitoring (lactate). On-line [54]
Biosensors – optical Cytokine quantification. Potential [55, 56]
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions profiling – metabolic monitoring. On-line [57]