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Table 1 Summary of Protocols to Differentiate LECs

From: Lymphatic Tissue Engineering and Regeneration

Cell Types Methods Results Ref.
Healthy patient fibroblast: breast & abdominal Isolated transcriptomes from LECs and BECs using FACS and microarray technology Established complete transcriptomes of isolated LECs, BECs, and other skin cell types
Novel endothelial cell subtype-restricted functions are influenced by the tissue environment
E14g2a Embryonic Stem (ES) Cell On OP9 stromal cells, VEGFR2+ cells from ES cells differentiated to LECs with expressing of prox1, VEGFR3, LYVE1, and podoplanin Differentiation of LECs from ES cell [172]
Human ES cells and human iPSCs OP9 assisted cell culture with VEGFA, VEGFC, and EGF
LECs isolated using LYVE-1 and PDPN in FACS-sorting
Generation of LECs from hiPSCs and hESCs
lymphangiogenesis and lympvasculogenesis as a function of LECs in vivo enhanced wound healing
Murine R1 ES cells Murine R1 ES cells cultured on mitotically inactivated primary mouse embryonic fibroblast
Embryoid bodies (EB) were isolated from embryonic stem cells
Embryoid bodies stained using antibodies for LYVE-1, CD31, MECA-32, and PROX-1
LECs expressing CD31, PROX-1, and LYVE-1 differentiated 18 days after embryoid body formation
Lymphatic vessel formation using VEGFA and VEGFC
hPSC Used a monolayer culture of hPSCs
hPSCs differentiated to early vascular cells which then matured to early endothelial cells and pericytes
hPSCs induced to codifferentiate into early vascular cells
Early vascular cells mature to endothelial cells and pericytes and organize themselves into microvascular networks in a pre-engineered matrix (HA hydrogels)