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Table 1 Molecular markers of musculoskeletal tissues involved during the tissue engineering process on biocompatible and biomimetic materials

From: An overview of advanced biocompatible and biomimetic materials for creation of replacement structures in the musculoskeletal systems: focusing on cartilage tissue engineering

 Specific MarkersReferences
Chondrogenic markersSRY-box 9 (SOX 9), Collagen type 1, Collagen type II, Collagen type III, Collagen type IXα3, Aggrecan, and a cartilage-specific proteoglycan[35,36,37,38]
Myogenic markersDesmin, myosin heavy chain 2, myocyte enhancer factor 2, Alpha actinin skeletal muscle 2 (ACTN2), MyoD, Myogenin (MYOG) and Troponin T[39,40,41]
Osteogenic markersRunt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), Collagen type I, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Osteocalcin (Ocn) and Osteopontin (Opn)[42, 43]
Tenogenic markersCollagen type I, Collagen type III, Scleraxis (SCX), Mohawk homeobox (Mkx), Tenomodulin (TNMD), Tenascin C, Biglycan, and Fibronectin[42, 44, 45]
Ligamentogenic markersCollagen type I, Collagen type III, Decorin, Biglycan and Aggrecan[46, 47]